Dracula: History and Myth. By Manning Leonard Krull

A map of Castle Poenari

— Posted by Manning on October 3rd, 2011

This metal sign is near the castle, but I somehow didn’t notice it during my visit. A lady who’d contacted me with some questions before her own trip to Poenari took this photo and shared it with me when she got back. I did my best to translate the Romanian with Google Translate and Wikipedia, but there are definitely some things that could use some clarification; please feel free to send me corrections if you’re fluent in Romanian!

Map of Castle Poenari

Here’s my translation, with notes at the bottom:

Map of Castle Poienari

(Vlad Țepeș’ Castle)

1. Drawbridge to the former castle1

2. Former gateway into the castle

3. Corridor – the castle trap2

4. Traces of a semi-cylindrical bastion, southwest corner 3

5. Semi-cylindrical bastion in the central southern side4

6. Semi-cylindrical bastion in the southeast corner

7. [Curtinele - wall?], south side5

8. [Curtin], east side

9. [Curtinele], north side

10. Wave is a collapsed portion of the northern castle wall6

11. Prismatic quadrilateral watershed (dungeon) of Castle Poienari7

12. Cistern

13. Median wall8


I’ve written up some notes that point out some parts of this map in my photos from my own visit to the castle.

1 In the fourth photo on this page I’m facing the castle from the far side of the bridge, which would be off to the left of the map.

2 First photo on this page.

3 In photos two and three on this page I’m outside the castle facing up to this part.

4 In the second photo on this page I’m in the southeast bastion facing the south-central one.

5 I haven’t been able to find any satisfactory translation for “curtinele” or “curtin,” but it seems like it’s probably just the castle walls.

6 I think “wave” is referring to sort of the edge of the castle terrain here, where there used to be a wall. It’s probably one of the pieces of the castle that was destroyed in an earthquake in the 19th century.

7 The tower/dungeon(/watershed) is featured in photos three, four, and five of this page. I’m not sure what they mean by “prismatic” here, and I’m not sure if this area was both a watershed and a dungeon, or possibly both?

8 In the third photo on this page, I’m standing near point 13 and facing the tower, point 11.



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Vlad Tepes documentary

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

I recently ran across this great documentary about the historical Dracula on YouTube. There are a few really cool shots of Castle Poenari in the snow. I was there in October, near Halloween, when it was chilly and a bit cloudy, but I’d love to see the place in wintertime like that. The documentary also tells some of my favorite weird stories about Dracula, like how he used to keep a golden chalice in the town square of each of his cities, which no one ever stole because all of his subjects were all so terrified of him. I love that stuff. Check it out…

Part one:


And don’t miss part two and part three.

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My Dracula rock

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

I try not to collect things; I try not to own things. Of all of my adventures all over Europe (about twenty countries in the last few years), I’ve only ever kept one souvenir: this small rock that I pried out of the floor of Cetatea Poenari — the castle built by Vlad Ţepeş, aka Vlad the Impaler, aka Dracula — in the Transylvania region of Romania.

My Dracula rock

It’s about an inch and a half tall. I carry it everywhere in the pocket of my backpack.

Vlad forced his imprisoned political enemies to build his castle for him, and I love to daydream about the guy who put this particular rock in place, and what he’d think if you told him some guy from the New World would steal it five hundred years later and carry it back to France (on an aero-plane no less, but let’s not overwhelm the poor chap), and later to America and a bunch of other exotic lands.

I like to pretend the rock is cursed. And just because I’m pretending doesn’t mean it’s not.

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Videos from Castle Poenari

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

I used the video feature of my digital camera for just about the first time ever while I was at the top of Castle Poenari, to try to document a little bit about the layout and size of the place. I generally can’t stand seeing tourists taking video of their vacations, whether it’s in museums or in front of monuments or whatever, so I felt a little like a hypocrite taking these, but I rationalized my decision by deciding that this is exactly the kind of stuff I would’ve been really happy to find when I was doing my own research about the castle and how to find it. So here they are!

The first one is a video showing the entrance into the tower archway, the room below, and the open ceiling above.


The second is a look around from the highest point of the castle. It’s really high up; listen to that wind up there.

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More info about Castle Poenari and the historical Dracula

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

Some good articles on Wikipedia

The Wikipedia articles about Vlad Tepes and Castle Poenari are pretty cool, particularly the Vlad one. Another noteworthy bit of information I picked up in wandering around Romania, which is useful if you’re going there: the castle name is pronounced something like “po-ee-NAR”; in the Romanian language, an “i” at the end of a word is (almost?) always silent. The last “r” is a bit rolled, like in Spanish, but due to my years in France I’ve spent too much time learning to pronounce the French “r” and I can’t do the Spanish one at all.

My favorite article about Poenari

At the time I started researching my trip, one of the very few existing webpages about Castle Poenari was this fantastic article called A Night in Dracula’s Castle, by an American journalist who spent the night alone in Castle Poenari a few years before it became a somewhat-known tourist attraction. It’s a great story, and it really inspired me to get serious about making the trip myself! The area where he talks about sleeping is certainly the tower archway, as it’s the only part of the castle that has any kind of covering at all. It was amazing to stand in that spot myself and imagine trying to survive a whole night there with the wolves, bears, and vampires.

Bran Castle — “the other Dracula’s Castle”

I’ve never visited Bran Castle myself, but I frequently receive questions about it. Bran Castle is “the other Dracula’s Castle” — it’s a much more beautiful and well-maintained castle, and it’s a much more popular tourist destination than Poenari, but in fact it has very little to do with Vlad Tepes. Check out the Wikipedia page on Bran Castle for more information — “While Vlad Tepes did not actually live in the Bran Castle, it is believed he spent two days locked in the dungeon while the Ottomans controlled Transylvania.”

German Stories About Dracula

Check out this page of German Stories About Dracula, a collection of delightful and probably apocryphal stories about Vlad Tepes, the historical Dracula, and his legendary fearsomeness and cruelty.

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Getting to Castle Poenari

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

Visiting Castle Poenari was a dream of mine for a long time, but when it came time to do the research on how to get there, there weren’t many websites with a lot of good information. Here I’ll tell you about how I got to Poenari, as well as a few other options that exist.

I visited Castle Poenari on my second trip to Romania, during a long, one-month voyage across a handful of countries; Switzerland, Austria, Romania, and Slovakia. Most of my traveling in Romania was in buses and minibuses, which are a very efficient and inexpensive way to see a lot of the country, as you can easily travel to a new town every couple days.

Curtea de Arges: the perfect starting point for your day trip to Poenari

My research had told me that Castle Poenari was near a town called Curtea de Arges, and that the easiest way to visit the castle was to stay the night in Curtea de Arges, set out in morning the for the castle, and return to Curtea de Arges that same night. So that’s what I planned on doing.

A bit earlier in the trip, I was staying in a hostel in a wonderful Romanian town called Sibiu, and I had an extraordinary stroke of luck: I met a Romanian man who had been living in America for 16 years, and he was back in Romania to visit his family and travel a bit. It turned out that he was born in Curtea de Arges! So he gave me a lot of great advice for getting to Curtea de Arges and also a little about visiting Poenari. Like nearly all Romanians, he was surprised I knew about Poenari and was puzzled about why I wanted to visit it.

Plotting the course from Sibiu

First, my friend told me a little about getting to Curtea de Arges from Sibiu. I had heard a few times that the roads are very bad in some parts of Romania, but I hadn’t seen this myself. I’d even heard that roads in some parts of the country are closed at certain times of year due to flooding (in the lowlands), ice and snow (in the mountains), general disrepair, etc. On the map, I could see roads that looked like they would go from Sibiu, South to a town called Ramnicu Valcea, and then due East to Curtea de Arges, where I’d stay the night. I planned on finding buses or minibuses that would go these routes. My Romanian friend advised me that the road between Ramnicu Valcea and Curtea de Arges was small and he’d heard it was flooded recently, so he suggested I take a longer route that would stay on bigger roads, which were more likely to be open. He suggested I go from Sibiu, South to Ramnicu Valcea, continue South-East toward Pitesti, and then head North to Curtea de Arges. So that’s exactly what I did. This took one long afternoon of travel, maybe about eight hours total, changing buses in each of those towns.

Buying bus and minibus tickets

Fortunately, buses and minibuses in Romania are relatively easy to use, even if you don’t speak Romanian. Every bus station has very clear signs about what towns you can get to from the one you’re currently in, and prices clearly marked for everything. So just saying the name of the town to the ticket person will do the trick; don’t be surprised if they speak a little English or German to you!

Locating your bus

When you approach the buses or minibuses, they always have the name of their destination printed on a sheet of paper and stuck inside the windshield; nice and easy. I always check with the driver to make sure anyway. Just say the name of the town as a question, and the driver will let you know if you’ve got the right bus.

Hotels in Curtea de Arges

So, I arrived in Curtea de Arges with no problems, and was surprised to find that it’s a very nice and modern Romanian town; I’d pictured a primitive little village, like many I’d seen while traveling around Transylvania. My Romanian friend in Sibiu had drawn me a small map of the town, which is really just one main street running North-South through the whole town, with most important things located right on that street.

I’d read that there were no hostels in Curtea de Arges, so I’d have to stay in a hotel. I’d read that there was one large hotel in town, called the Posada, and I’d asked my friend about it. He said the Posada was fine, but he knew of a smaller, less expensive, and in his opinion, nicer hotel not far away, called the Montana. So this is where I stayed. The Montana was absolutely great; after staying in lots of hostels, a nice, clean, modern hotel room felt like a real luxury. The staff at the Montana were extremely friendly and helpful, but didn’t speak a word of English, so checking in was slightly challenging, but not at all unpleasant. The room was great, with everything you’d expect in a modern, inexpensive American hotel; great shower, comfy bed, television, etc. I highly recommend staying at the Montana if you’re in Curtea de Arges. Also, the downstairs floor is a restaurant (with a menu translated into English! hooray!), and I had an amazing pizza there made with local sausage from Sibiu. That was one of the best meals I had in Romania, and I had plenty.

[Update: see some simple maps of hotels in Curtea de Arges, in the comments section below.]

Finding the minibus to Arefu

Okay, back to getting to Poenari! I’d planned to set out the next morning. The night before, I went to the supermarket in town to stock up on some food to bring with me to the castle; pretzels, fruit, a Coke, etc; nothing huge. I’d read that the castle was near a town called Arefu, about 25 km to the North, and that there were minibuses that went from Curtea de Arges to Arefu. I wandered a bit on the main street in Curtea de Arges and arrived at a place where several minibuses were parked in a row. I asked one of the drivers, “Arefu?” and “Poenari?” (phonetically AR-AY-FOO, and POE-EE-NAR; the “i” is silent!) and it took him a minute to figure out what I was looking for, but when he did he set me in the right direction. It turns out the buses that go up to Arefu are not parked on the main street, but there’s another side street on the West side of town where they go by. So he told me — all in gestures — that I need to put myself on this side street over to the West, wait for a minibus (fortunately “minibus” in Romanian is “minibus”), and flag it down.

A note about minibuses: While there are real bus stops and bus stations, it seems like it’s normal in Romania to just stand on the side of the road and flag down a minibus as it goes past; I saw this happen many times, and it seemed like a normal practice. So, I wandered down a side street, away from the main North-South street, and very soon found myself at the edge of town, with wide, green fields in front of me, and another North-South road that seemed like it could be a main route. There was an old woman waiting on the corner, which seemed like a good sign. I took out my notepad and wrote “POENARI” on it so I could show the driver when the bus arrived, rather than try to make him understand my terrible accent.

The minibus ride to Arefu and Poenari

No more than fifteen minutes later, a minibus arrived, and I noticed that the paper in the front window said “AREFU”! Fantastic! The bus pulled over, and I said hello to the driver in Romanian (“Buna ziua”) so the guy could hear my terrible accent and understand that I don’t speak Romanian. I then held up my pad of paper upon which I’d scribbled the word “POENARI.” The driver glanced at it, thought about it for a second, and then gestured “get in,” and explained something to me in Romanian, which, of course, I didn’t understand, but he seemed like a nice guy and it was clear he wanted to help me out. I paid 2.50 lei (less than a dollar, I think) and climbed in the crowded minibus. It felt so strange to get onto this rickety minibus full of mostly old women in traditional dress, clutching big bags of groceries and clothes and stuff. I have never blended in less in my life.

Everything worked out great though. I rode through 20-some kilometers of beautiful hills and farms and tiny villages, going basically in a straight line the whole time, and then we reached a point where the bus was going to make a left, and the driver pulled over and gestured to me to get out and walk straight down the road, in the direction the bus had been heading before the turn. He looked pretty confident that he was telling me the right thing to do, and I basically had no options and no way to get more information, so I got out. I enjoyed pretending that the bus driver simply wasn’t willing to go any closer to Dracula’s castle, but the real reason the bus turned away there is because there’s no town near the castle, so practically no one goes there. For the most part the local Romanians aren’t interested in Dracula or his castle (and the majority of them aren’t aware of our Western Dracula mythology) so it must have seemed really strange to the old people on the bus that this tourist wanted to get off here.

The walk to Castle Poenari

I walked in a straight line, as indicated by the driver, and pretty soon had some signs that I was doing the right thing. The minibus trip had been through green hills and fields, but there were dark green mountains coming up ahead, which seemed correct, because I knew the castle was on a mountain. Soon, on my right, I saw a small house with a carved wooden image of Vlad Tepes out front! This was “Pensiunea Dracula,” a restaurant and inn, and one of the very few things you’ll see in Romania that’s cashing in on Dracula tourism (but I’m sure that will change steadily in the coming years). I took a picture and continued walking.

[Update: see some simple maps of the bus stop and Pensiunea Dracula, in the comments section below.]

A note on stray dogs

It was around this point that I was adopted by a pack of stray dogs. One thing any traveler going to Romania will inevitably read/hear about is all the stray dogs all over the country, which are described as being a nuisance at best, and rabid and aggressive at worst (although I never saw any dogs being aggressive with humans!). My first time in Romania, I did see strays all over the place, but they were very calm and not at all dangerous. They’d hang around and hope you’d feed them, but they never got too close or growled at you or tried to snatch food away from you or anything. I saw them in every town I visited, but it was never a problem, and I got used to them quickly. I’ve read recently that the Romanian government has taken great strides to eradicate rabies in the country, so a lot of the dogs are innoculated and set free, and like I said, I definitely never saw any dogs showing any signs of being rabid. However, as I walked from the bus to the castle, I was adopted by a pack of wild dogs who wove in and around me and generally stayed very close to me the entire way to the base of the steps that lead up to the castle. It was a little unnerving, since I was walking on a rural road with no other people around anywhere, and I was carrying a bag of food, and these dogs were really filthy and wild-looking, and a little more aggressive, at least with each other; they’d sometimes get in each other’s way and growl or snap at one another, at the same time I was trying to untangle myself from them and step over/around them. It was a little bit tense the whole way, but fortunately nothing too scary happened. The pack finally scattered near the castle. So, no problems, but it was a little annoying, and a little scary when the whole pack were there and sniffing after my bag of food.

I should mention, I’ve received an e-mail from a Romanian woman in response to this page, telling me that the dogs I met weren’t “wild” or “stray” and that they all lived in the surrounding villages, and scolding me for painting a negative image of Romania. However, I’ve never seen dogs this dirty and scrawny, even in poor villages.
But whether they were wild or not, it doesn’t really change anything about my experience with them, and I’ve tried to stress here that I don’t think the dogs were dangerous. One more note about the dogs, an American woman I met through this page mentioned that she and her husband were also joined by a group of dogs on this same road, and they actually made friends with them, even carrying a tiny puppy up to the castle with them. I would personally not recommend touching any unsupervised dogs you meet anywhere in Eastern Europe, but these folks were fine!

At last, the castle!

So anyway, my new furry friends and I continued walking down that same road, and we soon entered into the mountains and joined up with a small river running alongside. This turned out to be the Arges River, which runs directly in front of the castle. And once I was in the mountains, I caught my first glimpse of the castle! I’d been somewhat concerned that it might be possible to not see the castle from the road, and that I might miss the stairs leading up to it, but it turns out this impossible, fortunately! You’ll definitely see the castle from below, and the stairs are easy to locate too.

As I got nearer to the castle, the road turned a bit and eventually I was able to see the hydroelectric plant in the distance; another great sign. As I mentioned in the Castle Poenari photo gallery, most sources that talk about Castle Poenari mention that it’s located right next to a large hydroelectric plant. Once you reach this hydroelectric plant, the castle steps are just beyond it.

After passing the hydroelectric plant, I was surprised to find a metal sign indicating the castle, with historical information in Romanian, English, and French! Immediately after, you’ll arrive at the parking lot for the castle. At the time I was there (in October 2006), there was a newly constructed snack bar with a few picnic tables, beyond the parking lot. Anticipating a potentially difficult hike, I bought a small cake, even though I already had some food in my bag.

The stairs that lead up to the castle were easy to locate, just behind the snack bar and to the left.
I was somewhat surprised to see that the stairs were concrete and had a metal railing; I was expecting more of a hike on dirt and rocks. Climbing the (approximately) 1500 stairs was surprisingly easy.

As for the actual visit to the castle, I think I covered that as well as I could in the Castle Poenari photo gallery pages.

Getting back to Curtea de Arges

After visiting the castle, getting back to Curtea de Arges was easy. I simply walked back to the point where the minibus had dropped me off, and waited for another one going in the other direction. There’s an actual bus stop here, with a huge Romanian flag painted on the side. After no more than twenty minutes of waiting, a minibus pulled up, and I asked the driver, “Curtea de Arges?” (which sounds a little like COR-TA DE AR-GESH). He nodded yes, and I climbed inside. Couldn’t be easier.

Other ways to get to the castle

I’ve been told you can reach Castle Poenari a few other ways, but I haven’t tried any of these myself, so please do some research before setting out!

I’m told there are tour buses that go directly to the castle from Bucarest, which is of course a big city so you can fly or take a train there, and then take a bus from there.

If you’re planning on going to Curtea de Arges but don’t want to take a minibus and walk, I’m told there are tour buses to Poenari from the Posada Hotel in Curtea de Arges.

Of course, you can also rent a car and drive to Poenari, and there’s a convenient parking at the base of the mountain below the castle. I’ve never driven in Romania, but I can tell you that in looking at maps of the area, it looks like you can approach Poenari from the South (i.e. from the direction of Curtea de Arges) or from the North (i.e. from the mountains). In doing my own research about hitchhiking and taking minibuses to the castle, I’d considered approaching from the mountains in the North, but then I read that some of the roads up there are closed in winter due to ice and snow. So beware of this if you’re traveling during the colder months!

Good luck!

Good luck, safe travels, and don’t forget your cross and your garlic!

— Manning Leonard Krull


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My Visit to Castle Poenari — part 4

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]

This is part 4 of 4. See part 3 here.

Grafitti near the top of the castle. I didn’t deface any of the walls myself, but I did pry a tiny gray rock out of the ground on the main path leading into the castle, to keep as a souvenir. I realized a few days later as I was flying back to Paris from Bratislava that I was flying on Friday the 13th with a rock from Dracula’s castle in my luggage. Not a great idea, but I came out unscathed.

On my way out, this is back near the castle entrance again. That’s the tallest still-standing part of the original castle.

Those rocks at the base of this side are actually fake; they’re big cement blobs to help keep the castle from sliding off the mountain.

And that’s all for my afternoon at Dracula’s castle! I desperately hope to visit again someday soon, and also to explore the other parts of Transylvania I wasn’t able to see on my first two trips. Romania is a fantastic country and I can’t recommend highly enough that you visit if you can. I hope you’ve enjoyed my photos! Safe travels,

— Manning Leonard Krull

Back to part 3

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]


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My Visit to Castle Poenari — part 3

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]

This is part 3 of 4. See part 2 here.

Here’s me actually in the archway of the tower. I sent my best friend Ben a text message from right here simply saying “I AM IN DRACULA’S FREAKING CASTLE,” and then I realized it was 6:30am back in Philadelphia…

A look at the castle wall from the far end.

A little background about the place: Apparently there was already actually an ancient castle on this spot before Vlad arrived, but it was in ruins, and when he wanted his own place built, he thought this would be a good location. He’d enslaved a large number of his political enemies and told them they had two years to build him a castle here. If they succeeded, he’d let them go free, and if they failed, he’d kill them. The actually did it, but it’s assumed a lot of them died along the way from the hard work. It’s still pretty impressive to see that some parts of their labor are still standing after 500 years and an earthquake. Good job, you guys.

On to part 4!

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]


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My Visit to Castle Poenari — part 2

— Posted by Manning on September 20th, 2011

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]

This is part 2 of 4. See part 1 here.

Like I mentioned above, a big part of the castle was destroyed in an earthquake in 1888. I believe the gray stones on the left are from the original walls, and the red bricks on the right are part of the reconstruction, but I can’t be sure this is correct.

Here’s the view down the other side.

They’ve installed walkways and handrails and stuff so you can enjoy some parts of the castle that are pretty heavily damaged and otherwise not traversible. That archway leads to the only part of the castle you can actually go “inside,” as in, for a couple meters there are walls on either side and a roof over your head. But for the most part, you’re just wandering around ruins in the open air.

After going through the arch, you can see down into this lower chamber that used to be covered with a roof/floor, as you can see from the remants of the beams.

Another look at the archway and the room beyond. I usually edit pretty heavily and try not to post too many redundant photos, but I wanted to document as much of this place as I could for anyone who’s interested; I’ve been researching this castle online for ages and there’s not too much information or pictures available.

On to part 3!

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]

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My Visit to Castle Poenari — part 1

— Posted by Manning on September 19th, 2011

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]

OCTOBER 2006: I traveled to Romania for my second time to see a number of things I wasn’t able to the first time, the most important of which (to me) was Castle Poenari — the real Dracula’s castle. Visiting Vlad Tepes’ real castle was a lifelong dream of mine, and it was pretty mindblowing to finally see it with my own eyes.

I’ve included a lot of information about getting there on my article called Getting to Castle Poenari. For now, the photos!

After being dropped off in the Romanian countryside by my driver who simply pointed up the road, I walked a couple kilometers and caught my first glimpse of the castle!

The real Dracula's castle

Here’s the first view of the castle! There’s a hydroelectric plant near the base of it, which I’d seen mentioned in a few of the articles I’d read about how to find the castle, so I was happy to see that and know I wasn’t at, like, the wrong castle (which is more of a possibility than you might think! Eastern Europe is lousy with old, crumbling castles).

Castle Poenari, the real castle of Vlad the Impaler

Zooming in here. This is neat; the castle was actually mostly destroyed during an earthquake in 1888. My guess is that the layer of gray stone at the bottom is part of the original castle from the 15th century, and the layer of red brick at the top is the rebuilt part (I have no idea when that was done, but even those “new” bricks are crumbling; are they a century old, or just made with shoddy Communist materials?). You can see the tiny bridge at the left, which you’ve got to cross to reach the castle.

Cetatea Poenari, the historical Dracula's castle

At the base of the mountain there’s actually a sign confirming that this is Castle Poenari, in Romanian, English, and French! Since Romanians mostly just think of Dracula as a historical figure (in fact, a hero of Christianity!), this castle is visited like any other historical leader’s home; almost like Monticello or something. There are concrete steps that go all the way up, and I’ve read conflicting figures on how many there are; anywhere from 1,400-1,800, which is a lot no matter how you slice it, but it’s not a hard hike or anything. The only other people I encountered were some Romanians spending a nice afternoon outdoors after church (I presumed, because it was Sunday and they were wearing nice clothes), and one old French guy who was, of course, smoking a cigarette as he climbed up the mountain.

At the top of the steps, there’s a newly-constructed office (not shown) with a guard who charges visitors 2 lei (note: I’m told this has increased a little bit recently) to continue on to the castle. After you get your ticket, you cross this little bridge and you’re there!

This is Dracula’s view from the top of his castle! Other than the road down there, I doubt much has changed in 500 years.

On to part 2!

[Part 1|Part 2|Part 3|Part 4]


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About Dracula: History and Myth

Dracula: History and Myth, was started as a place to put my photos and notes from my trip to Castle Poenari, aka the real Dracula's castle. This site also collects information and links pertaining to the historical Dracula, Dracula in fiction, and other miscellaneous things like vampires, Romania travel, etc. Enjoy! — Manning

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Dracula: History and Myth. Copyright © 2011 Manning Leonard Krull. All rights reserved.